The new OA indicators combine data from Web of Science and Unpaywall on four types of OA and an overall indicator for all forms of OA. .
The four types of OA are:
- Gold. Publications in an open access journal.
- Hybrid. Publications in a subscription journal that are open access.
- Bronze. Publications in a journal that are open access without a license.
- Green. Publications in a journal that are also available in an open access repository.
The overall indicator shows that OA publishing grew between the periods of 2006-2009 and 2014 – 2017. For the 26 Australian universities listed in the CWTS rankings the average proportion of OA publications has grown from 28.7% in 2006 - 2009 to 40.3% in 2014 – 2017 (Figure 1).
Over 2014 – 2017 an average of 32% of OA publications were Green, 13.3% Gold, 8.7% Bronze and 5.6% Hybrid across all universities. The sum of these figures (60.1%) is greater than the total proportion of OA publications (40.3%), suggesting that perhaps half of Australian OA publications are being made available via more than one OA model.
This graph shows the proportion (%) of publications counted as OA for the time period 2006-2009 compared with 2014-2017 for Australian universities (n = 26) vs all other international universities (n = 937). Those above the line have improved, those on the line have remained unchanged and those below the line have gone backwards.